Products
DEAR DEER 1/2" Plastic Impulse Sprinkler angle adjustable (impact sprinkler, garden sprinkler, sprinkler head ) with socket

plastic impulse sprinkler BJ-100

"DEAR DEER" Plastic Impulse Sprinkler (impact sprinkler, farm sprinkler, garden sprinkler, irrigation sprinkler)

Description

DEAR DEER plastic impact sprinkler (or said as plastic impulse sprinkler), angle adjustable, with stainless steel, rotar smoothly, evenly spray, durable, long life for use. DEAR DEER plastic impact sprinkler can be used for many plants. It is a very good garden irrigation sprinkler, farm irrigation sprinkler, field irrigation in different farmland.
size : male thread 1/2", 3/4", 1"

How does impact sprinkler work?
Are impact sprinklers good?
How much water does an impact sprinkler use?
Why is my sprinkler not rotating?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_sprinkler

An Impact Sprinkler (sometimes called an impulse sprinkler) is a type of irrigation sprinkler in which the sprinkler head, driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. Invented in 1933 by Orton Englehart, it quickly found widespread use. Though it has in many situations been replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads", many varieties of impact sprinkler remain in use.

Contents
Development
The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by a Glendora, California[1] citrus grower, Orton Englehart in 1933 and patented in 1935. Orton later sold it to Clem and Mary La Fetra who manufactured and marketed it under the brand name Rain Bird.[2]

Design and operation
The sprinkler head pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. The head is driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, and at least one arm extends from the head. The sprinkler arm is repeatedly pushed back into the water stream by a spring.[3] The arm's striking the water stream scatters the stream and re-orients the flow slightly, enabling a uniform watering area around the sprinkler.

Some full-circle impact heads feature a second, short range, opposing "spreader" nozzle (see image), which fills the close range watering coverage role provided by the rapid "return cycle" on part-circle heads.[3]

By adjusting the position of the limiting collars, water flow can be directed from a full-circle pattern to one of less coverage. The limiting collars are fully adjustable by twisting with fingers to achieve the area of coverage desired.

The uninterrupted flow path of impact heads makes them less vulnerable to damage and clogging by dirt and sand in the water. Thus, they are suitable for systems fed by well water. One defining feature of impact heads is they almost always have male pipe threads, as opposed to the female threads found on virtually all other sprinkler types.

The sprinkler head was originally manufactured from metal. Since the 1970s, they have also been manufactured from thermoplastics for improved corrosion resistance.

Usage
The impact sprinkler's long spray radius and uniform water distribution re-creates the effect of natural rainfall, and the device quickly replaced[citation needed] the centuries-old technique of furrow irrigation, in which trenches were dug between rows of crops and flooded.

Variations
An underground pop-up version of the impact sprinkler was introduced as a way to avoid the problem of having to carefully and time consumingly mow around over ground sprinkler heads.[4] When not in operation, these sprinklers disappear out of sight below turf level; however, great care should always be shown when mowing to avoid damage to any sprinkler heads which have failed to recede back into the turf.

Although largely replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads" by the 1990s, impact sprinklers still have many advantages, including uniformity of coverage, sand and grit resistance, and operation at lower water pressures.[5]

References
Landers, John David (2001). Glendora California. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 62–64. ISBN 978-0-7385-0826-9.
Tina Grant (2007). International Directory of Company Histories. 84. St. James Press. p. 318. ISBN 9781414429687.
"Publication: Operating Characteristics of Center Pivot Sprinklers" (PDF). Neb Guid. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
"Landscape Irrigation Equipment Part 1: Sprinklers & Spray Heads — HGIC @ Clemson University". Hgic.clemson.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
Barrett, James; Brian Vinchesi; Robert Dobson; Paul Roche; David Zoldoske (January 2004). Golf Course Irrigation: Environmental Design and Management Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-471-46455-6.
External links
Impact sprinkler in slow motion (video clip, 33 sec)
Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rain Bird – California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.
Categories: American inventions Irrigation


What is a sprinkler irrigation system?
What are the types of sprinkler irrigation?
Why sprinkler irrigation is used?
Where is sprinkler irrigation used in India?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation_sprinkler

An irrigation sprinkler (also known as a water sprinkler or simply a sprinkler) is a device used to irrigate agricultural crops, lawns, landscapes, golf courses, and other areas. They are also used for cooling and for the control of airborne dust.[citation needed] Sprinkler irrigation is the method of applying water in a controlled manner in way similar to rainfall. The water is distributed through a network that may consist of pumps, valves, pipes, and sprinklers.[1]

Irrigation sprinklers can be used for residential, industrial, and agricultural usage. It is useful on uneven land where sufficient water is not available as well as on sandy soil. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals of time. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of pump it, escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop. In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high pressure sprinklers or guns.

Types
Industrial
Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rainguns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.

Residential

An oscillating sprinkler is commonly used to water residential lawns, and is moved as needed.
Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinklers, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, underground sprinkler systems, and portable sprinklers. Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons, reducing damage during lawn mowing. These types of systems usually can be programmed to automatically start on a set time and day each week.

Small portable sprinklers can be temporarily placed on lawns if additional watering is needed or if no permanent system is in place. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are placed for a short period of time. Other systems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing system.

An antique sprinkler developed by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.[2]

The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain.

Center-pivot irrigation was invented in 1940[3] by farmer Frank Zybach, who lived in Strasburg, Colorado. In the 1950s a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed a rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.[4]

Underground sprinklers
Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC (higher pressure commercial systems) or polyethylene pipe (for typically lower pressure residential systems). At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5–2m (7–15 ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6–12m (20–40 ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs. use of indigenous materials also recommended.[5]

Health risks
In 2017, it was reported that use of common garden hoses in combination with spray nozzles may generate aerosols containing droplets smaller than 10 μm, which can be inhaled by nearby people. Water stagnating in a hose between uses, especially when warmed by the sun, can host the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) as biofilms on the inner surface of the hose. Clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever have been found to be associated with inhalation of garden hose aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. The report provides measured microbial densities resulting from controlled hose conditions in order to quantify the human health risks. The densities of Legionella spp. identified in two types of hoses were found to be similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks from other causes. It is proposed that the risk could be mitigated by draining hoses after use.[6]

See also
Drip irrigation
Feynman sprinkler
Irrigation
Sprinkler system timer
References
"CHAPTER 5. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
The Ride family's 'Nomad' brand tractor lawn sprinkler, National Museum of Australia
Morgan, Robert (1993). Water and the Land. Cathedral City, CA: Adams Publishing Corp. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0935030026.
Irrigation Pipe On Wheels Move Across Fields, July 1950 Popular Science, bottom of page 114
Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rainbird – California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.
Thomas, Jacqueline M.; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J. (2014). "Your Garden Hose: A Potential Health Risk Due toLegionellaspp. Growth Facilitated by Free-Living Amoebae". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (17): 10456–10464. Bibcode:2014EnST...4810456T. doi:10.1021/es502652n. ISSN 0013-936X.
External links
Look up irrigation sprinkler in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irrigation sprinkler.
vte
Garden tools
vte
Hydroculture
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
NDL: 00571727
Categories: IrrigationGardening tools

View More Details
Features
Made in Taiwan with stainless steel, rotar smoothly, evenly spray, durable, long life for use.


How does impact sprinkler work?
Are impact sprinklers good?
How much water does an impact sprinkler use?
Why is my sprinkler not rotating?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation_sprinkler

An Impact Sprinkler (sometimes called an impulse sprinkler) is a type of irrigation sprinkler in which the sprinkler head, driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. Invented in 1933 by Orton Englehart, it quickly found widespread use. Though it has in many situations been replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads", many varieties of impact sprinkler remain in use.

Development
The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by a Glendora, California[1] citrus grower, Orton Englehart in 1933 and patented in 1935. Orton later sold it to Clem and Mary LaFetra who manufactured and marketed it under the brand name Rain Bird.[2]

Design and operation
The sprinkler head pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. The head is driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, and at least one arm extends from the head. The sprinkler arm is repeatedly pushed back into the water stream by a spring.[3] The arm's striking the water stream scatters the stream and re-orients the flow slightly, enabling a uniform watering area around the sprinkler.

Some full-circle impact heads feature a second, short range, opposing "spreader" nozzle (see image), which fills the close range watering coverage role provided by the rapid "return cycle" on part-circle heads.[3]

By adjusting the position of the limiting collars, water flow can be directed from a full-circle pattern to one of less coverage. The limiting collars are fully adjustable by twisting with fingers to achieve the area of coverage desired.

The uninterrupted flow path of impact heads makes them less vulnerable to damage and clogging by dirt and sand in the water. Thus, they are suitable for systems fed by well water. One defining feature of impact heads is they almost always have male pipe threads, as opposed to the female threads found on virtually all other sprinkler types.

The sprinkler head was originally manufactured from metal. Since the 1970s, they have also been manufactured from thermoplastics for improved corrosion resistance.

Usage
The impact sprinkler's long spray radius and uniform water distribution re-creates the effect of natural rainfall, and the device quickly replaced[citation needed] the centuries-old technique of furrow irrigation, in which trenches were dug between rows of crops and flooded.

Variations
An underground pop-up version of the impact sprinkler was introduced as a way to avoid the problem of having to carefully and time consumingly mow around overground sprinkler heads.[4] When not in operation, these sprinklers disappear out of sight below turf level; however, great care should always be shown when mowing to avoid damage to any sprinkler heads which have failed to recede back into the turf.

Although largely replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads" by the 1990s, impact sprinklers still have many advantages, including uniformity of coverage, sand and grit resistance, and operation at lower water pressures.[5]

What is a sprinkler irrigation system?
What are the types of sprinkler irrigation?
Why sprinkler irrigation is used?
Where is sprinkler irrigation used in India?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation_sprinkler

An irrigation sprinkler (also known as a water sprinkler or simply a sprinkler) is a device used to irrigate agricultural crops, lawns, landscapes, golf courses, and other areas. They are also used for cooling and for the control of airborne dust.[citation needed] Sprinkler irrigation is the method of applying water in a controlled manner in way similar to rainfall. The water is distributed through a network that may consist of pumps, valves, pipes, and sprinklers.[1]

Irrigation sprinklers can be used for residential, industrial, and agricultural usage. It is useful on uneven land where sufficient water is not available as well as on sandy soil. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals of time. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of pump it, escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop. In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high pressure sprinklers or guns.

Contents
Types
Industrial
Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rain guns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.

Residential
An oscillating sprinkler is commonly used to water residential lawns, and is moved as needed.
Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinklers, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, underground sprinkler systems, and portable sprinklers. Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons, reducing damage during lawn mowing. These types of systems usually can be programmed to automatically start on a set time and day each week.

Small portable sprinklers can be temporarily placed on lawns if additional watering is needed or if no permanent system is in place. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are placed for a short period of time. Other systems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing system.

An antique sprinkler developed by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.[2]

Agricultural science
Sprinkler nozzles, used in crop irrigation

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

End Gun style pivot applicator sprinkler

Irrigation on a cotton farm

The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain.

Center-pivot irrigation was invented in 1940[3] by farmer Frank Zybach, who lived in Strasburg, Colorado. In the 1950s a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed a rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.[4]

Underground sprinklers
Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC (higher pressure commercial systems) or polyethylene pipe (for typically lower pressure residential systems). At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5–2m (7–15 ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6–12m (20–40 ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs. use of indigenous materials also recommended.[5]

Health risks
In 2017, it was reported that use of common garden hoses in combination with spray nozzles may generate aerosols containing droplets smaller than 10 μm, which can be inhaled by nearby people. Water stagnating in a hose between uses, especially when warmed by the sun, can host the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) as biofilms on the inner surface of the hose. Clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever have been found to be associated with inhalation of garden hose aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. The report provides measured microbial densities resulting from controlled hose conditions in order to quantify the human health risks. The densities of Legionella spp. identified in two types of hoses were found to be similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks from other causes. It is proposed that the risk could be mitigated by draining hoses after use.[6]
See also
Drip irrigation
Feynman sprinkler
Irrigation
Sprinkler system timer
References
"CHAPTER 5. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
The Ride family's 'Nomad' brand tractor lawn sprinkler, National Museum of Australia
Morgan, Robert (1993). Water and the Land. Cathedral City, CA: Adams Publishing Corp. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0935030026.
Irrigation Pipe On Wheels Move Across Fields, July 1950 Popular Science, bottom of page 114
Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rainbird – California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.
Thomas, Jacqueline M.; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J. (2014). "Your Garden Hose: A Potential Health Risk Due toLegionellaspp. Growth Facilitated by Free-Living Amoebae". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (17): 10456–10464. Bibcode:2014EnST...4810456T. doi:10.1021/es502652n. ISSN 0013-936X.
External links
Look up irrigation sprinkler in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irrigation sprinkler.
vte
Garden tools
vte
Hydroculture
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
NDL: 00571727
Categories: IrrigationGardening tools

Specification
Types Size Thread
BJ-101 1/2” male
BJ-111-4M 1/2” male
BJ-111-6M 3/4” male
BJ-111-6F 3/4” female
1/2" male thread.
operation pressure: kgf/cm^2 flow rate: 1/min rotate speed: sec/cycle spray diameter: m
0.4 6.31 12 6.1
1.0 9.61 8 8.4
1.5 11.59 7 9.2
2.0 13.23 6 9.7
2.5 14.66 6 10.0
3.0 15.94 6 10.2
Safety/Quality Approvals
ISO9001:2015, TÜV Rheinland
Other 1
How does impact sprinkler work?
Are impact sprinklers good?
How much water does an impact sprinkler use?
Why is my sprinkler not rotating?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_sprinkler

An Impact Sprinkler (sometimes called an impulse sprinkler) is a type of irrigation sprinkler in which the sprinkler head, driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. Invented in 1933 by Orton Englehart, it quickly found widespread use. Though it has in many situations been replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads", many varieties of impact sprinkler remain in use.

Contents
Development
The original horizontal action impact drive sprinkler was invented by a Glendora, California[1] citrus grower, Orton Englehart in 1933 and patented in 1935. Orton later sold it to Clem and Mary La Fetra who manufactured and marketed it under the brand name Rain Bird.[2]

Design and operation
The sprinkler head pivots on a bearing on top of its threaded attachment nut. The head is driven in a circular motion by the force of the outgoing water, and at least one arm extends from the head. The sprinkler arm is repeatedly pushed back into the water stream by a spring.[3] The arm's striking the water stream scatters the stream and re-orients the flow slightly, enabling a uniform watering area around the sprinkler.

Some full-circle impact heads feature a second, short range, opposing "spreader" nozzle (see image), which fills the close range watering coverage role provided by the rapid "return cycle" on part-circle heads.[3]

By adjusting the position of the limiting collars, water flow can be directed from a full-circle pattern to one of less coverage. The limiting collars are fully adjustable by twisting with fingers to achieve the area of coverage desired.

The uninterrupted flow path of impact heads makes them less vulnerable to damage and clogging by dirt and sand in the water. Thus, they are suitable for systems fed by well water. One defining feature of impact heads is they almost always have male pipe threads, as opposed to the female threads found on virtually all other sprinkler types.

The sprinkler head was originally manufactured from metal. Since the 1970s, they have also been manufactured from thermoplastics for improved corrosion resistance.

Usage
The impact sprinkler's long spray radius and uniform water distribution re-creates the effect of natural rainfall, and the device quickly replaced[citation needed] the centuries-old technique of furrow irrigation, in which trenches were dug between rows of crops and flooded.

Variations
An underground pop-up version of the impact sprinkler was introduced as a way to avoid the problem of having to carefully and time consumingly mow around over ground sprinkler heads.[4] When not in operation, these sprinklers disappear out of sight below turf level; however, great care should always be shown when mowing to avoid damage to any sprinkler heads which have failed to recede back into the turf.

Although largely replaced by gear-driven "rotor heads" by the 1990s, impact sprinklers still have many advantages, including uniformity of coverage, sand and grit resistance, and operation at lower water pressures.[5]

References
Landers, John David (2001). Glendora California. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 62–64. ISBN 978-0-7385-0826-9.
Tina Grant (2007). International Directory of Company Histories. 84. St. James Press. p. 318. ISBN 9781414429687.
"Publication: Operating Characteristics of Center Pivot Sprinklers" (PDF). Neb Guid. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
"Landscape Irrigation Equipment Part 1: Sprinklers & Spray Heads — HGIC @ Clemson University". Hgic.clemson.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
Barrett, James; Brian Vinchesi; Robert Dobson; Paul Roche; David Zoldoske (January 2004). Golf Course Irrigation: Environmental Design and Management Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-471-46455-6.
External links
Impact sprinkler in slow motion (video clip, 33 sec)
Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rain Bird – California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.
Categories: American inventions Irrigation
Other 2
What is a sprinkler irrigation system?
What are the types of sprinkler irrigation?
Why sprinkler irrigation is used?
Where is sprinkler irrigation used in India?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation_sprinkler

An irrigation sprinkler (also known as a water sprinkler or simply a sprinkler) is a device used to irrigate agricultural crops, lawns, landscapes, golf courses, and other areas. They are also used for cooling and for the control of airborne dust.[citation needed] Sprinkler irrigation is the method of applying water in a controlled manner in way similar to rainfall. The water is distributed through a network that may consist of pumps, valves, pipes, and sprinklers.[1]

Irrigation sprinklers can be used for residential, industrial, and agricultural usage. It is useful on uneven land where sufficient water is not available as well as on sandy soil. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals of time. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of pump it, escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop. In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high pressure sprinklers or guns.

Contents
Types
Industrial
Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rain guns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.

Residential
An oscillating sprinkler is commonly used to water residential lawns, and is moved as needed.
Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinklers, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, underground sprinkler systems, and portable sprinklers. Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons, reducing damage during lawn mowing. These types of systems usually can be programmed to automatically start on a set time and day each week.

Small portable sprinklers can be temporarily placed on lawns if additional watering is needed or if no permanent system is in place. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are placed for a short period of time. Other systems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing system.

An antique sprinkler developed by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.[2]

Agricultural science
Sprinkler nozzles, used in crop irrigation

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

End Gun style pivot applicator sprinkler

Irrigation on a cotton farm

The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain.

Center-pivot irrigation was invented in 1940[3] by farmer Frank Zybach, who lived in Strasburg, Colorado. In the 1950s a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed a rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.[4]

Underground sprinklers
Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC (higher pressure commercial systems) or polyethylene pipe (for typically lower pressure residential systems). At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5–2m (7–15 ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6–12m (20–40 ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs. use of indigenous materials also recommended.[5]

Health risks
In 2017, it was reported that use of common garden hoses in combination with spray nozzles may generate aerosols containing droplets smaller than 10 μm, which can be inhaled by nearby people. Water stagnating in a hose between uses, especially when warmed by the sun, can host the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) as biofilms on the inner surface of the hose. Clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever have been found to be associated with inhalation of garden hose aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. The report provides measured microbial densities resulting from controlled hose conditions in order to quantify the human health risks. The densities of Legionella spp. identified in two types of hoses were found to be similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks from other causes. It is proposed that the risk could be mitigated by draining hoses after use.[6]
See also
Drip irrigation
Feynman sprinkler
Irrigation
Sprinkler system timer
References
"CHAPTER 5. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
The Ride family's 'Nomad' brand tractor lawn sprinkler, National Museum of Australia
Morgan, Robert (1993). Water and the Land. Cathedral City, CA: Adams Publishing Corp. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0935030026.
Irrigation Pipe On Wheels Move Across Fields, July 1950 Popular Science, bottom of page 114
Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rainbird – California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.
Thomas, Jacqueline M.; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J. (2014). "Your Garden Hose: A Potential Health Risk Due toLegionellaspp. Growth Facilitated by Free-Living Amoebae". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (17): 10456–10464. Bibcode:2014EnST...4810456T. doi:10.1021/es502652n. ISSN 0013-936X.
External links
Look up irrigation sprinkler in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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